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Kidney Failure

The kidneys are organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin.

Diseases & Disorders of Kidney
Congenital
  • Congenital hydronephrosis
  • Congenital obstruction of urinary tract
  • Duplex kidneys, or double kidneys, occur in approximately 1% of the population. This occurrence normally causes no complications, but can occasionally cause urine infections.
  • Duplicated ureter occurs in approximately one in 100 live births
  • Horseshoe kidney occurs in approximately one in 400 live births
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease afflicts patients later in life. Approximately one in 1000 people will develop this condition
  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is far less common, but more severe, than the dominant condition. It is apparent in utero or at birth.
  • Renal agenesis. Failure of one kidney to form occurs in approximately one in 750 live births. Failure of both kidneys to form is invariably fatal.
  • Renal dysplasia
  • Unilateral small kidney
  • Multicystic dysplastic kidney occurs in approximately one in every 2400 live births
  • Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction or UPJO; although most cases appear congenital, some appear to be an acquired condition.
Acquired
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Hydronephrosis is the enlargement of one or both of the kidneys caused by obstruction of the flow of urine.
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) are a relatively common and particularly painful disorder.
  • Kidney tumors
  • Wilms tumor
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Minimal change disease
  • In nephrotic syndrome, the glomerulus has been damaged so that a large amount of protein in the blood enters the urine. Other frequent features of the nephrotic syndrome include swelling, low serum albumin, and high cholesterol.
  • Pyelonephritis is infection of the kidneys and is frequently caused by complication of a urinary tract infection.
  • Renal failure
  • Acute renal failure
  • Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease